According to the Jains, dravya is
composed of five eternal categories of being, known as
- Dharma – a moral virtue
and that which allows beings to move.
- Adharma – the medium of
rest and that which allows beings to stop moving.
- Akasha – the space in
which all exists.
- Pudgala – matter.
- Jiva – the soul.
Kala, or time, was added as a
sixth category of dravya by the Digambara sect.
According to Vaisheshika, dravya refers
to nine substances. Five of the dravya substances are physical
prthivi (earth), ap (water), tejas
(fire), vayu (air) and akasha (ether). The remaining
four substances that comprise dravya are kala (time), dik
(space), Atman (Soul or universal Self) and manas (mind
or internal organ).