The ultimate concern of Nyaya is ending
human suffering, which this school of philosophy postulates is the
result of ignorance of reality. Liberation from suffering – a key
component of yoga dashana – comes through right knowledge,
according to Nyaya scholars.
The Nyaya school made significant
contributions to epistemology, the branch of philosophy concerning
knowledge, belief, nature and origin. Nyaya followers believe in four
pramanas, or sources of knowledge:
- Pratyaksha (perception)
- Anumana (inference)
- Upamana (comparison)
- Shabda (testimony)
Nyaya scholars have argued for the
existence of God and for monotheism.